Friday, May 24, 2013

Bharthari

In Indian history and folklore, Raja Bharthari (Hindi: भरथरी,Marathi: भर्तृहरि), also known as "Sant" Bharthari, in many parts of India is the hero of many folk stories in North India. He was the ruler of Ujjain in the 1st century BC, before renouncing the world and abdicating in the favor of his younger brother Vikramaditya and became a follower of Guru Gorakhnath and along with his nephew Gopi Chand went to the Guru's hill abode in northern Punjab. He is sometimes identified with Bhartṛhari, a 7th century poet.
Stories of Bharthari and his nephew King Gopi Chand of Bengal (Hindi: गोपीचन्द), who are considered Nath panth yogis, abound in the Indian folklore of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and West Bengal. Much of the details about the lives of Bharthari and his brother Vikramaditya are from the tales of Baital Pachisi (Twenty five tales of Baital), translated as 'Vikram and The Vampire' by Sir Richard Francis Burton in 1870.
Bhartari was the elder son of King Gandharva-Sena, by a handmaiden, and received the kingdom of Ujjain from The celestial god Indra and the King of Dhara.[2][3]
When Bhartrhari was king of 'Ujjayani' (modern day Ujjain) in his state there lived a Brahman who after years of austerities was given, the fruit of immortality, from the celestial tree of Kalpavriksha. The Brahman presented the same to his monarch, Raja Bhartrhari, who in turn, passed it on to his love, the beautiful, Pinglah Rani, Raja Bhartrhari's last and youngest wife. The queen, being in love with the Head police officer of the state, Mahipaala, presented the fruit to him, who further passed it on to his beloved, Lakha, one of the maids of honour. Eventually, Lakha being in love with the king presented the fruit back to the king. Having completed the circle, the fruit revealed the downsides of infidelity to the king, he summoned the queen and ordered her beheading, and ate the fruit himself. After that he abdicated the throne, to his younger brother Vikramaditya, and became a religious mendicant.[2][4] He later became a disciple of 'Pattinathar' (Swetharanyar or pattinathu chettiyar is poorvashram name of this saint from poompuhar,Tamilnadu) who first indulged in argument about samsari and sanyasi with king Bhartrhari later during the conversation pattinathar said that all womens have 'dual mind' it might be true case even with parameswari. King conveyed this news to rani pingalah and she ordered pattinathar to get punished and to sit in 'kalu maram' ( Tree, whos top portion would be sharpened like a pencil and whole tree is fully painted with oil,person who are allowed to sit in the top will split into 2 pieces), They tried pattinathar but kalu maram started burning and nothing happened to pattinathar , the king came to know this news and went directly to pattinathar and asked him to get ready to die the next day , but pattinathar repllied i'm ready even now to die , The next day king came with tears in his eyes and released saint from jail bcz he actually noticed queen pingalah having sex with horsemen that night, He thrown away his empire,waelth ,even full coat dress and dressed simple kovanam (cloth that covers only the organ), The king became disciple of pattinathar and got mukthi(salvation) in Kalahasthi temple (Please Refer Pattinathar life history)
There is a very famous song sung by the bards of Chhatisgarh in the memory of Raja Bhartrhari. The story says that Queen Pingala and Raja Bhartrhari did not have a son and the queen was very sad as a result of that. A saint came to the door of their palace one day and asked for alms. When Rani Pinglaa went down to give him alms, he said, "I know you are sad and I have brought some holy water for you. If you drink this water with faith, you will have a son in twelve months' time." Rani Pingala had the water and as promised by the Yogi, she had a son after twelve months.
There is one more very interesting story related to Raja Bhartrhari and Rani Pingla. It is said that Raja Bhartrhari was out for a hunt one day and he saw a woman jump into the pyre of her husband (Sati) as her grief would not let her stay alive. Raja Bhartrhari was moved and this incident stayed in his mind. When he returned to his palace, he told the story to Rani Pingala and asked her if she would do the same. Rani Pingala said that she would die on hearing the news itself and there would be no chance of her staying alive until the funeral ceremony. Raja Bhartrhari decided to test her and went on a hunt once again and sent the news of his death back to the palace. The Mahaaraani died on hearing the news as she had promised and Raja Bhrithari was grief-stricken. Guru Gorakhnath heard about the grief of the King and came to help him overcome his grief. It is said that Guru Gorakhnath created 750 copies of Rani Pingala to demonstrate the illusory nature of the world to Raja Bhartrhari. Even though Rani Pingala came alive Raja Bharthari decided to renounce the world and became a follower of Guru Gorakhnath. He became a very famous saint and is also known as Sant Bhartrhari by the people of North India. Bhratahari is famous in Alwar of Rajasthan. Astami is the worship day celebrate as a festival. The fair of bhratahari grouped by lakhs of peoples of alwar, jaipur, Dausa near Sariska in Alwar.
 Gorakhnath, Old Pratima (At Gorakhnath Temple, odadar, Porbandar, Gujarat, India)
Gorakshanath (also known as Gorakhnath) was an 11th to 12th century Hindu Nath yogi, connected to Shaivism as one of the two most important disciples of Matsyendranath, the other being Caurangi.
Traditionally, Guru Gorakshanath is believed to have been born sometime in the 8th century, although some believe he was born hundreds of years later. He traveled widely across the Indian subcontinent, and accounts about him are found in some form in several places including Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Punjab, Sindh, Uttar Pradesh, Nepal, Assam, Bengal, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and even Sri Lanka.

Nath Sampradaya

There are varying records of the spiritual descent of Gorakshanath. All name Adinath and Matsyendranath as two teachers preceding him in the succession. Though one account lists five gurus preceding Adinath and another lists six teachers between Matsyendranath and Gorakshanath, current tradition has Adinath identified with Lord Shiva as the direct teacher of Matsyendranath, who was himself the direct teacher of Gorakshanath.
The Nath tradition underwent its greatest expansion during the time of Gorakshanath. He produced a number of writings and even today is considered the greatest of the Naths. It has been purported that Gorakshanath wrote the first books on Laya yoga. In India there are many caves, many with temples built over them, where it is said that Gorakshanath spent time in meditation. According to Bhagawan Nityananda, the samadhi shrine (tomb) of Gorakshanath is at Nath Mandir near the Vajreshwari temple about one kilometer from Ganeshpuri, Maharashtra, India. According to legends Gorakshanath and Matsyendranath did penance in Kadri Temple at Mangalore, Karnataka.They are also instrumental in laying Shivlingam at Kadri and Dharmasthala.
The temple of Gorakhnath is also situated on hill called Garbhagiri near Vambori,Tal Rahuri ;Dist Ahmednagar.

Legends

One legend states that Guru Gorakshanath, the "eternal sage" traditionally associated with Hatha Yoga, has been around for thousands of years watching the welfare of humanity. Other legends ascribe different stories to his birth and the period of his worldly existence, and they vary greatly. The Nath Rahasya, which literally translates as "the mystery of the masters", recounts the birth, work, and death of nine such Naths (masters); and Guru Gorakshanath was the ninth Nath, preceded by his Guru, the eighth Nath, namely, Matsyendranath.

Gurkhas

The Gurkhas of Nepal take their name from this saint. Gorkha, a historical district of Nepal, is named after him because it was the place where he appeared for first time in this universe. There is a cave with his paduka (footprints) and an idol of him. Every year on the day of Baisakh Purnima there is a great celebration in Gorkha at his cave, called Rot Mahotsav; it has been celebrated for the last seven years. Gorakhpur, the district headquarters of Gorakhpur District, is believed to derive its name from Guru Gorakhnath.

In Tamil Siddhar tradition

Korakka Siddhar (தமிழ்: கோரக்கர்) (Devanagari: गोरख्खर्) is one among the 18 Siddhars and also known as Goraknath amongst Navanathar. Agattiyar and Bogar were his gurus. His Jeeva samadhi temple is in Vadukupoigainallur of Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. According to one account, he spent a portion of his growing-up years in the Velliangiri Mountains in Coimbatore.
Other sanctums related with Korakkar are Perur, Thiruchendur and Triconamalli. Korakkar caves are found in Chaturagiri and Kolli Hills. Like other siddhas, Korakkar has written songs on Medicine, Philosophy, and Alchemy.
Another important aspect of Korakkar was that he was given the duty of safeguarding the secrets of Alchemy. This authority was said to be given by his guru Agathiyar. It was said that a student of Alchemy must worship Korakkar first and seek his grace if he was to excel in the field of Alchemy.

Works

Romola Butalia, an Indian writer of Yoga history, lists the works attributed to Gorakshanath as follows: "Guru Gorakhnath is thought to have authored several books including the Goraksha Samhita, Goraksha Gita, Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, Yoga Martanada, Yoga Siddhanta Paddhati, Yoga-Bija, Yoga Chintamani. He is believed to be the founder of the Nath Sampradaya and it is stated that the nine Naths and 84 Siddhas are all human forms created as yogic manifestations to spread the message of yoga and meditation to the world. It is they who reveal samadhi to mankind."

Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati

The Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati is a very early extant Hatha Yoga Sanskrit text attributed to Gorakshanath by the indigenous tradition which describes the Avadhuta, as Feuerstein (1991: p. 105) relates:
"One of the earliest hatha yoga scriptures, the Siddha Siddhanta Paddhati, contains many verses that describe the avadhuta. One stanza (VI.20) in particular refers to his chameleon-like capacity to animate any character or role. At times, it is said, he behaves like a worldling or even a king, at other times like an ascetic or naked enunciat..
POSTED BY......VIPUL KOUL..................................................EDITED BY................ASHOK KOUL




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